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Beginning in , transgender women were allowed to compete, as long as they win their national pageants. Some of the most successful national countries in the last decade have been Venezuela , the United States , France , the Philippines , and Colombia which command consistently high interest and television ratings in their respective countries.
The live broadcasts of the Miss Universe pageant regardless of the hosting nation proved highly popular particularly in the Americas and Asia in recent years.
The main Miss Universe Pageant is held over a two-week period in December. In the s through the s, the pageant was a month long.
This allowed time for rehearsals, appearances, and the preliminary competition, with the winner being crowned by the previous year's titleholder during the final competition.
According to the organizers, the Miss Universe contest is more than a beauty pageant: Often a candidate has lost because she did not have a good answer during the question responses rounds; although this section of competition has held less importance during recent pageants than it did in the twentieth century.
Delegates also participate in swimsuit and evening gown competitions. If there is a tie, the higher semifinal scores become decisive. The winner is assigned a one-year contract with the Miss Universe Organization, going overseas to spread messages about the control of diseases, peace, and public awareness of AIDS.
Aside from the job, the winner also receives a cash allowance for her entire reign, a New York Film Academy scholarship, a modelling portfolio, beauty products, clothes, shoes, as well as styling, healthcare, and fitness services by different sponsors of the pageant.
She also gains exclusive access to events such as fashion shows and opening galas, as well as access to casting calls and modelling opportunities throughout New York City.
Aside from the main winner and her runners-up, special awards are also given to the winners of the best National Costume, Miss Photogenic, and Miss Congeniality.
The Miss Congeniality award is chosen by the delegates themselves. In recent years, Miss Photogenic has been chosen by popular internet vote the winner used to be chosen by media personnel covering the event.
The competition for the Miss Universe title has seen many changes, although there have been several constants throughout its history.
All the contestants compete in a preliminary round of judging nowadays called the "Preliminary Competition" where the field is narrowed to a select number of semifinalists.
This number has fluctuated over the years. The first Miss Universe pageant had ten semifinalists. For the next two years, the number of semifinalists grew to In , the number dropped to a stable 15, which remained through In , the number was reduced to That number was further reduced to 10 in This lasted until , when the number of 15 was reinstated.
In , there were 20 semifinalists, the highest number ever. In , the organization announced the Top 15 system would be back, which was also used in until In , the results of a fan vote was shown on the screen during the swimsuit and evening gown competitions, but this did not affect the final outcome of the competition.
From to , there were 16 semifinalists, 15 chosen by judges and one chosen through Internet votes. The 16th semifinalist by fan vote has been dropped as of , and the number has been reverted to 15 semifinalists.
And in edition there were 13 semifinalists, 12 chosen by judges panel from the quarantine to the preliminary night and one chosen by Twitter and Vodi app.
In the early years, the contestants were judged in swimsuit and evening gown only. In later years, the contestants also competed in a preliminary interview round in a one-on-one meeting with each individual judge.
The crown of Miss Universe has changed nine times over the course of its year history. It was used by Armi Kuusela in Miss Universe Iris Mittenaere , France.
Miss Universe Pia Wurtzbach , Philippines. Miss Universe Paulina Vega , Colombia. Miss Universe Gabriela Isler , Venezuela.
Miss Universe Leila Lopes , Angola. Miss Universe Ximena Navarrete , Mexico. Miss Universe Dayana Mendoza , Venezuela. Miss Universe Riyo Mori , Japan.
Miss Universe Natalie Glebova , Canada. Miss Universe Jennifer Hawkins , Australia. Miss Universe Justine Pasek , Panama.
Miss Universe Lara Dutta , India. Miss Universe Mpule Kwelagobe , Botswana. Miss Universe Sushmita Sen , India. Miss Universe Lupita Jones , Mexico.
Miss Universe Angela Visser , Netherlands. Miss Universe Cecilia Bolocco , Chile. Miss Universe Yvonne Ryding , Sweden. Miss Universe Rina Mor , Israel.
Miss Universe Gloria Diaz , Philippines. Miss Universe Christiane Martel , France. Miss Universe Armi Kuusela , Finland.
The current president is Paula Shugart. The organization sells television rights to the pageants in other countries. Sheffield, the first runner-up, replaced her.
Electronic Arts was reportedly developing a video game based on the pageant, but development status is currently uncertain due to the closure of EA Black Box , the studio allegedly developing the game.
An official mobile companion app of the Miss Universe Organization was released in May From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
List of Miss Universe countries. For full list and details, see List of Miss Universe titleholders. Archived from the original on Retrieved 4 May Retrieved 27 November Catalase converts hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 to water and oxygen.
Catalase-activity tests are sometimes used to distinguish staphylococci from enterococci and streptococci. However, not all S. Staphylococcus is different from the similarly named and medically relevant genus Streptococcus.
Natural genetic transformation is a reproductive process involving DNA transfer from one bacterium to another through the intervening medium, and the integration of the donor sequence into the recipient genome by homologous recombination.
Additionally, it can cause various skin and soft-tissue infections,  particularly when skin or mucosal barriers have been breached.
Joint replacements put a person at particular risk of septic arthritis , staphylococcal endocarditis infection of the heart valves , and pneumonia.
Diabetics, injection drug users, and individuals with heart conditions should take extra precautions to avoid coming into contact with S.
Preventive measures include washing hands often with soap and making sure to bathe or shower daily. Once symptoms begin to show, the host is contagious for another two weeks, and the overall illness lasts a few weeks.
If untreated, though, the disease can be deadly. Skin infections are the most common form of S. This can manifest in various ways, including small benign boils , folliculitis , impetigo , cellulitis , and more severe, invasive soft-tissue infections.
It is mostly found in fertile, active places, including the armpits, hair, and scalp. Large pimples that appear in those areas may exacerbate the infection if lacerated.
This can lead to staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome , a severe form of which can be seen in newborns. The presence of S.
It is capable of generating toxins that produce food poisoning in the human body. Stay away from any food if ill, and wear gloves if any open wounds occur on hands or wrists while preparing food.
This manifests in one of three forms: Without antibiotic treatment, S. It is commonly found with another pathogen, Candida albicans , forming multispecies biofilms.
The latter is suspected to help S. Once the device becomes infected, it must by completely removed, since S. Current therapy for S. Conventional antibiotic treatment alone is not effective in eradicating such infections.
These beads can release high doses of antibiotics at the desired site to prevent the initial infection. Novel treatments for S.
These agents have shown inhibitory effects against S. Its large polysaccharide capsule protects the organism from recognition by the cow's immune defenses.
Hyaluronidase also known as spreading factor breaks down hyaluronic acid and helps in spreading it. Depending on the strain, S. Many of these toxins are associated with specific diseases.
The list of small RNAs involved in the control of bacterial virulence in S. Many mRNAs in S. Deletion of the motif resulted in IcaR repressor accumulation and inhibition of biofilm development.
Though the exact mechanism of resistance is unknown, S. Protein A is anchored to staphylococcal peptidoglycan pentaglycine bridges chains of five glycine residues by the transpeptidase sortase A.
In fact, studies involving mutation of genes coding for protein A resulted in a lowered virulence of S. Protein A in various recombinant forms has been used for decades to bind and purify a wide range of antibodies by immunoaffinity chromatography.
Transpeptidases, such as the sortases responsible for anchoring factors like protein A to the staphylococcal peptidoglycan, are being studied in hopes of developing new antibiotics to target MRSA infections.
Some strains of S. This pigment acts as a virulence factor , primarily by being a bacterial antioxidant which helps the microbe evade the reactive oxygen species which the host immune system uses to kill pathogens.
Mutant strains of S. Mutant colonies are quickly killed when exposed to human neutrophils , while many of the pigmented colonies survive.
These tests suggest the Staphylococcus strains use staphyloxanthin as a defence against the normal human immune system. Drugs designed to inhibit the production of staphyloxanthin may weaken the bacterium and renew its susceptibility to antibiotics.
Depending upon the type of infection present, an appropriate specimen is obtained accordingly and sent to the laboratory for definitive identification by using biochemical or enzyme-based tests.
A Gram stain is first performed to guide the way, which should show typical Gram-positive bacteria, cocci, in clusters.
Furthermore, for differentiation on the species level, catalase positive for all Staphylococcus species , coagulase fibrin clot formation, positive for S.
For staphylococcal food poisoning, phage typing can be performed to determine whether the staphylococci recovered from the food were the source of infection.
Recent activities and food that a patient has recently eaten will be inquired about by a physician, and a physical examination is conducted to review any symptoms.
With more severe symptoms, blood tests and stool culture may be in order. Recent genetic advances have enabled reliable and rapid techniques for the identification and characterization of clinical isolates of S.
These tools support infection control strategies to limit bacterial spread and ensure the appropriate use of antibiotics. Quantitative PCR is increasingly being used to identify outbreaks of infection.
When observing the evolvement of S. These sequences are then assigned a number which give to a string of several numbers that serve as the allelic profile.
Although this is a common method, a limitation about this method is the maintenance of the microarray which detects newly allelic profiles, making it a costly and time-consuming experiment.
Limitations of the method include practical difficulties with uniform band patterns and PFGE sensitivity as a whole. Spa locus typing is also considered a popular technique that uses a single locus zone in a polymorphic region of S.
The treatment of choice for S. An antibiotic derived from some Penicillium fungal species, penicillin inhibits the formation of peptidoglycan cross-linkages that provide the rigidity and strength in a bacterial cell wall.
As a result, cell wall formation and degradation are imbalanced, thus resulting in cell death. Combination therapy with gentamicin may be used to treat serious infections, such as endocarditis ,   but its use is controversial because of the high risk of damage to the kidneys.
Adjunctive rifampicin has been historically used in the management of S aureus bacteraemia, but randomised controlled trial evidence has shown this to be of no overall benefit over standard antibiotic therapy.
Antibiotic resistance in S. Indeed, the original Petri dish on which Alexander Fleming of Imperial College London observed the antibacterial activity of the Penicillium fungus was growing a culture of S.
For this reason, vancomycin , a glycopeptide antibiotic, is commonly used to combat MRSA. MRSA strains are most often found associated with institutions such as hospitals, but are becoming increasingly prevalent in community-acquired infections.
Minor skin infections can be treated with triple antibiotic ointment. Resistance to methicillin is mediated via the mec operon , part of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec SCC mec.
As such, the glycopeptide vancomycin is often deployed against MRSA. Aminoglycoside antibiotics, such as kanamycin , gentamicin , streptomycin , etc.
Aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes inactivate the aminoglycoside by covalently attaching either a phosphate , nucleotide , or acetyl moiety to either the amine or the alcohol key functional group or both groups of the antibiotic.
This changes the charge or sterically hinders the antibiotic, decreasing its ribosomal binding affinity. This enzyme has been solved by X-ray crystallography.
Glycopeptide resistance is mediated by acquisition of the vanA gene, which originates from the enterococci and codes for an enzyme that produces an alternative peptidoglycan to which vancomycin will not bind.
Methicillin was the first antibiotic in this class to be used it was introduced in , but, only two years later, the first case of MRSA was reported in England.
Despite this, MRSA generally remained an uncommon finding, even in hospital settings, until the s, when the MRSA prevalence in hospitals exploded, and it is now endemic.
Resistance to these antibiotics has also led to the use of new, broad-spectrum anti-Gram-positive antibiotics, such as linezolid , because of its availability as an oral drug.
First-line treatment for serious invasive infections due to MRSA is currently glycopeptide antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin. A number of problems with these antibiotics occur, such as the need for intravenous administration no oral preparation is available , toxicity, and the need to monitor drug levels regularly by blood tests.
Also, glycopeptide antibiotics do not penetrate very well into infected tissues this is a particular concern with infections of the brain and meninges and in endocarditis.
Glycopeptides must not be used to treat methicillin-sensitive S. Because of the high level of resistance to penicillins and because of the potential for MRSA to develop resistance to vancomycin, the U.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has published guidelines for the appropriate use of vancomycin. In situations where the incidence of MRSA infections is known to be high, the attending physician may choose to use a glycopeptide antibiotic until the identity of the infecting organism is known.
After the infection is confirmed to be due to a methicillin-susceptible strain of S. The first case of vancomycin-intermediate S. The carriage of S.
Emphasis on basic hand washing techniques are, therefore, effective in preventing its transmission. The use of disposable aprons and gloves by staff reduces skin-to-skin contact, so further reduces the risk of transmission.
Recently, myriad cases of S. Transmission of the pathogen is facilitated in medical settings where healthcare worker hygiene is insufficient. The bacteria are transported on the hands of healthcare workers, who may pick them up from a seemingly healthy patient carrying a benign or commensal strain of S.
Introduction of the bacteria into the bloodstream can lead to various complications, including endocarditis, meningitis, and, if it is widespread, sepsis.
Ethanol has proven to be an effective topical sanitizer against MRSA. Quaternary ammonium can be used in conjunction with ethanol to increase the duration of the sanitizing action.
The prevention of nosocomial infections involves routine and terminal cleaning. Nonflammable alcohol vapor in CO 2 NAV-CO2 systems have an advantage, as they do not attack metals or plastics used in medical environments, and do not contribute to antibacterial resistance.
An important and previously unrecognized means of community-associated MRSA colonization and transmission is during sexual contact.
Certain strains of S. As of , no approved vaccine exists against S.